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Offering sustainable technology to the residents of impoverished countries; empowering them to improve their quality of life.

Welcome


Thank you for visiting our WAPI webpage. Hopefully there is everything you need to know about WAPI's and if you have any questions or are interesting in making or receiving WAPI's don't be afraid contact us.

What are WAPIs?

The reusable WAPI (Water Pasteurization Indicator) is a simple, low cost device containing a special soy wax that helps users determine when water has reached pasteurization temperatures. The wax melts at the same temperature as the water is pasteurized.

Disease-causing organisms in water and milk are killed by exposure to heat in a process known as pasteurization. Boiling is often recommended to achieve pasteurization. However, contaminated water and milk can be pasteurized at temperatures well below boiling, saving time and fuel.

Water heated to 149 degrees F (65 degrees C) for a short period of time is free from microbes, including E Coli, Rotaviruses, Giardia and Hepatitis A virus. At 160 degrees F (71 degrees C) milk and foods are pasteurized.

The WAPI can be used successfully over most fuel sources including wood, charcoal and gas. It also works especially well in conjunction with the solar cooker. With good sun, simple solar cookers can pasteurize water for a family at a rate of about one liter of water per hour.

Why Make WAPIs?

The WAPI, a reusable Water Pasteurization Indicator is a simple, low cost device that can be used to determine when water has reached pasteurization temperatures.

The Importance of Pasteurization

Water related diseases are responsible for 80% of all illnesses and deaths in the developing world. An estimated 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea occur each year, resulting in the death of nearly 2 million children. Worldwide, about 1.3 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, including nearly half of the population of sub-Sahara Africa.

Producing WAPIs and distributing them to families living in areas of the world where clean water is unavailable positively impacts world health. You can distribute the WAPI through your contacts overseas (Rotary Clubs, individual friends, NGO's, etc.) or send the finished WAPI's to "Rotary Club of Fresno, c/o Walt Parrish, 1286 E. Plymouth Way, Fresno, CA. 93720.


Directions-How to Use a WAPI

Using solar energy to pasteurize water

SOLAR PASTEURIZATION INSTRUCTIONS

1. Pour water into a black pot or jar.
Thin metal pots are ideal. If necessary, pots and lids may be painted black on the outside, with flat, nontoxic latex paint. Glass jars, painted black on the outside, also work well. Lids should have a small hole in them or be loosely screwed on to release steam pressure. Tip: Place a vertical strip of tape on the jar before painting, then remove the tape leaving a space through which to view the WAPI.

2. Place a WAPI, large washer down and wax up, into the water with the end of the string outside of the pot or jar. The large washer end of the WAPI should rest on the bottom of the pot or jar and the wax end should be higher. Replace the lid.

3. Orient the solar cooker as you would for cooking. In general, face your cooker easterly in the morning and westerly in the afternoon.

4. Set the pot or jar in the solar cooker. If using a panel-type solar cooker, such as the CooKit, you can speed the pasteurization by placing the pot or jar inside a clear, heat resistant plastic bag. Though a plastic bag is required for cooking in this type of cooker, it is often not necessary for pasteurizing. For quicker heating use the plastic bag.

5. Leave the cooker in a sunny place for a number of hours, reorienting if necessary. Allow at least one hour per liter of water.

6. When the WAPI wax melts and runs to the bottom of the WAPI, the water has been pasteurized. Even if the water has cooled by the time you check it, as long as the wax is at the bottom of the WAPI then pasteurization has occurred.

7. Allow the water to cool before drinking.

8. Keep the water covered until use to prevent recontamination.
Don’t let fingers or unclean objects touch clean water.

If you aren’t sure, re-pasteurize the water.

How to make WAPIs

Production Process and Materials for the Original WAPIs

Materials:
1. 3/8”outside diameter x 1/4” inside diameter poly carbonate tubing. Usually comes in 8 ft. lengths.
2. 4 pound test mono-filament fish line cut into 15” lengths. 6-8 pound test line is acceptable
3. 2 each washers .174”x.4375”x.32” flat, 18-8 ss. (#8 washer)
4. 1 each flat washer, 18-8ss, 3/8” IDx1”OD.
5. Myverol 18-06 K wax. Use 3/8" of wax in tube.
6. Bailing wire for "S" hook
7. 4"X6" Plastic Bags
8. Instructions

Production Process

Station 1 – Cut tubing into lengths of 2 1/2”. Use PVC pipe cutters (easiest)

Station 2 – Using an embossing tool, heat one tube end and crimp closed with pair of pliers and let cool.

Station 3 – Put wax inside tube ( about 3/8” of wax) and add large washer over non-crimped end.

Station 4 – Using the embossing tool, heat opposite end of tube and crimp using pliers. Let cool.

Station 5 – Drill 1/32” diameter hole in each flattened end of tube.

Station # 6 Using a pan of hot water (170 degrees F or better) put WAPI into the water. The wax will melt and appear at the bottom of the tube. The melted wax will be clear. As the tube heats up, check for air leaking out either end. Set to one side WAPI's that leak. Using a pair of tongs lift out each WAPI and stand upright and let wax cool. Cooled wax will be white in color. If unit leaks unit in half and reuse large washer.

Station 7 – Cut fish line to 15” lengths. Tie one small washer (3/8”OD) to one end of fish line. Thread this line through one end of the tube, up along side of tube, under and through the large washer, and through the hole at the opposite end of the tube.

Station 8 – Tie a small washer (3/8” OD) at opposite end of fish line.

Station 9 – Cut a piece of bailing wire and form a "S" hook. One end will be larger and will hang on the lip of the pan. The opposite end will be small and will be fitted on the small washer. This arrangement prevents the WAPI from falling into the fluid in the pan when in use.

Station 10. Dry unit and insert into a 4"X6" plastic bag along with "S" hook and Instruction on "How to Use."

Other notes in english and spanish

Activity Stations for WAPI Construction

  1. Cut tubing into 2 1/2” lengths
  2. Using an embossing tool, heat one end of tube and crimp it closed with pliers. (Blow air into to tube to check for seal)
  3. Place 1 large washer on the tube, and place into rack. Pour (3/8”) of powered wax into the open end of the tube.
  4. Heat second end of tube with the embossing tool and crimp closed with pliers.
  5. Drill a small hole in each end of the WAPI
  6. Quality Control……Place the WAPI into hot water and melt wax. If wax bubbles to the top of the water the seal is not complete and the WAPI should be discarded. Retrieve washer if possible.
  7. Cut fishing line into 15” long segments and tie one small washer to one end.
  8. Stringing the WAPI String the fishing line through the hole on one end of the WAPI, place the fishing line under (between) the large washer and the tube and then string the line through the last hole. Tie a small washer to the end of the line. Wrap fish line around WAPI to avoid tangling.
  9. Making S hooks. Cut bailing wire into 3” lengths and bend into the shape of the letter S making a hook.
  10. Bagging the WAPI Put wrapped WAPI, S hook and instructions into a plastic bag. ‘Burp’ air from bag and seal. Place 40 sealed bags into on Gallon sized zip lock for storage and transport.

Additional Information
All stations can be operating at the same time. As the group moves through the process the early stations (cutting the tubing) will close and participants can move to another area. WAPIs that are not completed by the end of the session can be used to start the next session.

Materials and tools needed to make WAPI’s Masking tape
12” ruler
Polycarbonate tubing (3/8" OD x 1/4" ID) (Lexan)
Pipe cutter to cut tubing
Black permanent marker
4”x6” zip lock plastic bags
Half-gallon size plastic zip lock bags
Scissors
8 lb. test fishing line
Large stainless steel washers (1"OD x 3/8" ID)
Small stainless steel washers… size #8
Electric drill
1/16" or 5/64” drill bit
Flat nosed pliers
Heat gun (embosser)
Pot for heating water to test WAPI’s
Tongs to lift WAPI’s out of water
Powdered hydrogenated soy wax (Myverol 18-06)
Bailing wire for “S” hooks
Portable heater to heat water (propane or electric)
Wood block (for drilling)
Instructions on how to use

Estaciones para la Construcción del WAPI:

  1. Corte tuberia en trozos de 2 ½” de largo.
  2. Usando una herramienta de estampado, calentar un lado del tubo y bobínalo cerrado con tenazas. (soplar aire en el tubo para asegurase que esté bien sellado.
  3. Ponga una arendela grande en el tubo y póngalo en la rejilla. Vierta (3/8”) de cera en polvo en el lado abierto del tubo.
  4. Calentar el lado abierto del tubo con la herramienta de estampado y séllelo con tenazas.
  5. Taladre un hoyo pequeño en cada extremo del WAPI.
  6. Control de Calidad: Ponga el WAPI en agua caliente y derrite la cera. Si burbujas de cera salen sobre el agua entonces el WAPI no está sellado completamente y debe de ser descartado. Recupere la arendela antes de tirar el WAPI si es posible.
  7. Corte línea de pescar en tramos de 15” y amarre un pequeño “washer” a cada lado.
  8. Amarrando el WAPI: Inserte la línea de pescar atravéz del hoyo en un extremo del WAPI, ponga la línea debajo (en medio) de la arendela grande y el tubo y después inserte la línea atravéz del último hoyo. Amarre una arandela pequeña al final de la línea. Envuelva la línea de pescar alrededor del WAPI para evitar que se enrede.
  9. Haciendo el Enganche “S”: Corte alambre en tramos de 3” y doble para darle forma de la letra S, haciéndolo un enganche.
  10. Empaquetando el WAPI: Ponga el WAPI envuelto, el enganche S y las instrucciones en una bolsa de plástico. Saque el aire de la bolsa y séllela. Ponga 40 bolsas selladas en bolsas de zip lock de un galón y ciérrelas para su transportación.

Información Adicional
Todas las estaciones pueden estar operando al mismo tiempo. Mientras el grupo se mueva atravéz de las estaciones, las primeras de ellas (cortando el tubo) cerrarán y los participantes se pueden mover a otras areas. Los WAPIs que no están terminados al final de la sesión pueden ser usados para empezar la siguiente sesión.

Materiales y Herramientas Necesarias Cinta adhesiva
Regla de 12 pulgadas
Tubo de policarbonato (3/8" OD x 1/4" ID) (Lexan)
Cortador de tubos
Marcador permanente negro
Bolsas de plástico Ziploc, 4 pulgadas x 6 pulgadas
Bolsas de plástico Ziploc, medio-galón
Tijeras
Línez de pesca de 8 libras
Arandelas de acero inoxidable,(una pulgada de diámetro exterior…3/8 pulgada diámetro interior)
Arandelas de acero inoxidable (tamaño #8)
Taladro eléctrico
Broca de 1/16" / 5/64" pulgadas
Alicates de nariz plana
Herramienta de estampado
Una olla para calendar el agua
Pinzas para levanter WAPIs del agua
Cera de soja en polvo (Myverol 18-06)
Alambre para los ganchos “S”
Calentador potátil para calentar el agua (propano o eléctrico)
Instrucciones sobre cómo utilizar

How to Use

Disease-causing organisms in water and milk are killed by exposure to heat in a process known as pasteurization. Boil• ing is often recommended to achieve pas-teurization. However contaminated wa-ter and milk can be pasteurized at tem¬peratures well below boiling. Saving time and fuel. Water heated to 149 degrees F (65 degrees C) for a short period of time is free from microbes, including E Coli, Rotaviruses; Giandia and Hepatitis A vi¬rus. At 160 F (71 degrees C) milk and food are pasteurized.

Solar Cookers International reusable Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI) is a simple, low cost device containing a special soy wax that helps users determine when water has reached pasteurization temperatures.

IMPORTANCE OF PASTEURIZATION
Water related diseases are responsible for 80% of all illnesses and deaths in the developing world. An estimated 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea occur each year, resulting in the deaths of nearly 2 million children. Worldwide, about 1.3 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, including nearly half of the population of Sub-Sahara Africa.

SOLAR PASTEURIZATION
The WAPI can be used for pasteurizing over most fuel sources including wood, charcoal and gas, but it works particularly well in conjunction with a solar cooker. With good sun, simple solar cookers like the Solar Cookers International "Cookit" and common solar box cookers can pasteurize water for a family at a rate of about one liter per hour.

SAFETY NOTICE: Pasteurization does not remove dangerous chemicals, like arsenic. Pasteurization is not the same as sterilization, a process where everything including heat resistant spores, is killed. The heat resistant spores that survive pasteurization are harmless to drink. Where sterilized liquids are needed (in hospitals for example) high temperatures are achieved using special pressure cookers.

SOLAR PASTEURIZATION INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Pour water into a black pot or jar. Thin metal pots are ideal. If necessary, pots and lids may be painted black on the outside, with flat, nontoxic latex paint. Glass jars, painted black on the outside, also work well. Lids should have a small hole in them or be loosely screwed on to release steam pressure.
    TIP: Place a vertical strip of tape on the jar before painting, then remove the tape leaving a space through which to view the WAPI without having to take it out of the jar to see if Pasteurization has occurred.
  2. Place a WAPI, washer down and wax up, into the water with the end of the string outside of the pot or jar. The washer end of the WAPI should rest on the bottom of the pot or jar and the wax end should be higher. Replace the lid. Please Note: When using the WAPI for the first time, the wax will be in powder form and will slide to the bottom of the tube with the large washer. The wax will begin to melt at 160 degrees F and become clear at the bottom of the tube. When you take it out of the fluid and cool the tube the wax will also cool and become a solid white mass. In each use thereafter follow the instructions in 2.
  3. Orient the solar cooker as you would for cooking. In general, face the cooker easterly in the morning and westerly in the afternoon.
  4. Set the pot or jar in the cooker. If using a panel-type solar cooker, such as the CooKit, you can speed the pasteurization by placing the pot or jar inside a clear, heat resistant plastic bag. Through a plastic bag is required for cooking in this type of cooker, it is often not necessary for pasteurizing.
  5. Leave the cooker in• a sunny place for a number of hours, reorienting it if necessary. Allow at least one hour per liter of water.
  6. If using rocket stove to heat water put the WAPI in the water and use the S hook provided and hook it on to the side of the pot. When the wax has melted and fallen to the bottom of the Wapi pasteurization is completed.
  7. When the WAPI wax melts and falls to the bottom of the WAPI, the water has been pasteurized. Even if the water has cooled by the time you check it, as long as the wax is at the bottom of the WAPI, then pasteurization has occurred.
  8. Allow the waters to cool before drinking.
  9. Keep the water covered until use to prevent recontamination. Don't let fingers or unclean objects touch clean water.
  10. If you aren't sure, re-pasteurize the water.

Cómo utilizar

Lo organismos que nos enferman y se en-cuentran en el agua y la leche mueren cuando son expuestos al calor en un proceso lIamado pasteurizaci6n. Lo recomendado es hervir para lograr la pasteurizaci6n. Pero el agua y leche contaminadas pueden pasteurizarse a temper-aturas menores sin lIegar a hervir. Economizando asi tiempo y gas. Calentando el agua a 149 grados F (65 grados centigrados) por un corto tiempo se libra de microbios, incluyendo E Coli, Retrovirus,; Gandia y el virus de Hepatitis A. A los 160 F (71 grados centigrados) se pasteurizan la leche yalimentos.

EI Indicador de Pasteurizaci6n de Agua WAPI que se puede usar y volver a usar de Solar Cook¬ers Internacional, es sencillo, de bajo costa que contiene una cera especial de soya que Ie ayuda a los usuarios a determinar cuando el agua al¬canzo ya las temperaturas de pasteurizaci6n.

LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA PASTEURIZACION Las enfermedades ;"elacionadas con agua con¬taminada son responsables de 80% de todas las enfermedades y muertes en el mundo en desarrollo. Se estima que 1.5 billones de casos de diarrea se registran anualmente, resultando

en la muerte de casi 2 millones de ninos. Alrededor del mundo 1.3 billones de personas no tienen acceso a agua potable que puedan tomar, incluyendo casi la mitad dB !3 poblaci6n en Sub Sahara Africa.

PASTEURIZACION SOLAR

EI WAPI puede usarse para pasteurizar con la mayoria de fuentes como madera, carb6n y gas, pero trabaja particularmente bien con la cocedora solar. Cuando hay buen sol, las sencillas cocedoras solares como la de Solar Cookers Internacional "CooKit" y las comunes cajas solares pueden pasteurizar el agua para una familia a raz6n de un litro por hora.

NOTA DE SEGURIDAD: La pasterizaci6n no remueve materiales quimicos peligrosos como el arsenico. Pasterizar no es 10 mismo que esterilizar, un proceso donde todo, incluyendo las esporas resistentes a 10 caliente se mueren. Las esporas resistentes al calor que sobreviven la pasteurizaci6n no son peligrosas al tomarse. Donde se necesiten liquidos esterilizados (en los hospitales por ejemplo) las altas temperaturas se logran usando cocedoras de presi6n especial.

INSTRUCCIONES DE PAUSTERIZACION SOLAR

  1. Vaciar agua en la olla negra 0 frasco. Las ollas de metal delgado son ideales. De ser necesario, las ollas y tapaderas pueden ser pintadas de color negro por fuera, con pintura lisa latex, no toxica. Frascos de vidrio, pintados de color negro por fuera, tambien funcionan bien. Las tapaderas deben tener un orificio 0 no apretarlas mucho al cerrarlas, para que pueda salir la presi6n del vapor.
    TIP: Coloque una tira vertical de cinta adhesiva en el frasco antes de pintarlo, despues quite la cinta dejando el espacio por medio del cual se vera el WAPI sin tener que sacarlo delfrasco para ver si ya ocurri6 la pasteurizaci6n.
  2. Coloque la rondana WAPI, hacia abajo y cera hasta el fondo, el agua con la punta del hilo colgando fuera de la olla 0 frasco.
    La punta de la rondana en la punta del WAPI debera detenerse en el fondo de la olla 0 frasco y la punta con cera debera quedar mas alta. Reemplacen la tapadera.
  3. Oriente el cocedor solar como 10 haria para cocinar. Siempre, ponga su cocedor de frente hacia el este en la manana y al oeste en la tarde. 4. Ponga la olla 0 frasco en la cocedora. Si usted usa una cocedora solar del tipo de paneles, como CooKit, puede agilizar la pasteurizaci6n balanceando la olla 0 frasco dentro de una bolsa de plastico transparente que resista 10 caliente. Aunque se requiere una bolsa de plastico para cocinar en este tipo de cocedora, con frecuencia no es necesaria para la pasteurizaci6n.
  4. Deje la cocedora en un lugar soleado por varias horas, reorientela de ser necesario. Se necesita por 10 menos una hora por cada litro de agua.
  5. Cuando se derrite la cera WAPI y cae al fondo del WAPI, el agua ya esta pasteurizada .. WAPI antes WAPI despues Aunque el agua se haya enfnado para de pasteurizar de pasteurizar el tiempo que la revise, mientras que la cera este en el fondo; la pasteurizaci6n ya se logro.
  6. Permitan que el agua se enfrie antes de tomarla.
  7. Mantengan cubierta el agua hasta que se use para evitar la contaminacion. No permitan que sus dedos u otros objetos no limpios toquen el agua.
  8. Si no esta seguro, repasteurice el agua.

Who to contact?

Is your club or organization interested in making WAPI's?
Would you or your organization like to donate funds so that others can purchase materials to make WAPI's?
Are you interested in receiving WAPI's?
Do you just have questions?

You can reach us at parrishwalt@sbcglobal.net
We'd love to hear from you.

Pictures of Interact members making WAPI's







Where to Find Supplies

Integrated Solar Cooking Now Offers WAPI Kits!
The following suppliers were used for materials for the WAPI:
1. Washers – Fastenal Corp., 3535 W. Gettysburg Fresno CA, 93722, 559-227-1112
2. Fish line – any sporting goods store.
3. Tubing – Golden State Specialty Plastics, 8178 Belvedere Sacremento CA 95876, 916-456-7945
4. Wax – Mitsubishi International Food Ingredients, 1-800-287-9989 (Customer Service line) Ask for your local rep.
5. Snack bag – any super market or Uline @ 1-800-295-5510 (4"X6", 2 mil, sealable)
6. Instructions. We will send a copy to you. From there find the cheapest place that prints. We had ours done at a local middle school but we supplied the paper.

We would be happy to come out and show you how to build and package.